Most Recent Biotechnology Articles.

  • TILLING: A Method of Functional Genomics

    TILLING (Targetting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes) is an efficient approach of reverse genetics used in functional genomics for mutagenesis. Development of mutagenic population and screening-technique that identifies single base mutations in a target gene. It based on the formation of DNA hetero-duplexes that are formed when multiple alleles are amplified by PCR and are then heated and slowly cooled. A “bubble” forms at the mismatch of the two DNA strands, which is then cleaved by specific endonuclease to detect induced or natural DNA polymorphisms in genes of interest. The products are then separated by size on several different platforms. It is efficient method to study the possible phenotype controlled by gene sequences whose function is unknown.

    By: Dalpat Lal
  • Mapping population: It's Concept, types and Properties

    A population used for gene mapping is called mapping population and obtained from controlled crosses. Based on maintaining genetic constitution different types of mapping population have been reported. The primary or mortal mapping populations, such as F2, backcross are developed by hybridization and can be used as a mapping population. However, immortal or long-term mapping populations like RILs, DHs, NILs, MAGIC and NAM are developed for precision phenotyping of the traits of importance and for sharing of the populations among different research workers involved in global mapping projects. The development of mapping populations are an initial steps in molecular breeding for construction of genetic linkage map and QTL’s identification of important crops.

    By: Dalpat Lal
  • CRISPR: A NEW TOOL FOR GENETIC MICROSURGERY

    CRISPR-Cas9 system has garnered much attention in the scientific world as an effective genome editing tool where RNA is targeted rather than protein. This system can be utilized in various knock-down strategies.

    By: Ratanti Sarkhel
  • Agricultural Biotechnology:A Tool For Crop Improvement

    For about 10,000 years, farmers have been improving wild plants and animals through the selection and breeding of desirable characteristics. This breeding has resulted in the domesticated plants and animals that are commonly used in crop and livestock agriculture. In the twentieth century, breeding became more sophisticated, as the traits that breeders select for include increased yield, disease and pest resistance, drought resistance and enhanced flavor. Traits are passed from one generation to the next through genes, which are made of DNA. Recently, scientists have learned enough to begin to identify and work with the genes (DNA) that are responsible for traits. Based on an understanding of DNA, scientists have developed solutions to increase agricultural productivity. The research of biotechnology started from the ability to identification, isolation, integration, expression and inheritance of genes in particular crop. Hence biotechnology enhances breeders’ ability to make improvements in crops and livestock.

    By: sujeet kumar
  • Marker-Assisted Selection: An Approach For Precision Plant Breeding

    The volume of publications on the development and to a lesser extent the application of molecular markers in plant breeding has increased dramatically during the last decade. However, some fundamental issues remain to be resolved, particularly regarding complex traits, before marker-assisted selection realizes its full potential in public sector breeding programs. These include the development of high throughput precision phenol typing systems for QTL mapping, improved understanding of genotype by environment interaction and epistasis, and development of publicly available computational tools tailored to the needs of molecular breeding programs.

    By: sujeet kumar
  • Micro Propagation Application and Acchivement

    The initial milestone in large scale production of important plant species through this technique of micro propagation was laid down in the mid of 20th century, when for the first time, cultured shoot meristems were used to get virus free plants of Dahlia and potato (Morel and Martin,1952). The observation that apical meristem culture in orchid could be a better alternative to vegetative multiplication by Morel (1960) initiated the practical application of micro propagation in horticulture. The use of tissue culture in the regeneration and commercial propagation of economically important plants is a comparative recent and radical development. Advance in biotechnology provided new methods for rapid production of high quality, disease- free and uniform and planting material.

    By: sujeet kumar
  • Recent concept of Transgenic plants and Application

    To date, the world population stands at more than 6 billion people, and it is expected to reach 9 billion by the year 2050. Food production will need to increase at the same rate or more to satisfy the needs of such an enormous number of people. It is now more than one decade since the first transgenic plants were generated experimentally. In that period there have been dramatic advances in our understanding on both basic and applied aspects of plant biology. Twenty years ago, results of the first experiments describing the successful transfer and expression of foreign genes in plant cells were published. Since then, transgenic plants have become an essential tool for studying plant biology and for the development of novel plant varieties that have been cultivated extensively in some regions of the world.

    By: sujeet kumar
  • Bt cotton in India: Insect resistance outbreak

    In India, Bt cotton growth was exponential since its introduction in 2002 , it delivers significant agronomic, economic, welfare and environmental benefits to farmers but due to some reasons its resistance against target pests seems declining....

    By: Anupma
  • Nutraceuticals

    Nutraceutical is the basically medicine in form of food. Foods are enriched with mineral, vitamins, functional proteins and other biomolecule to get health and medicinal benefits. It provides the cheap alternatives to remove the malnutrition and improvement of health in developing countries. There are different approaches to enrich the food with nutraceutical benefits but before introduction, few points need to be considered like source of nutraceutical compound allergic or not, target effects and consequences need to be considered before introduction and their effect of doses on health.

    By: SARITA KUMARI
  • HKT Transporter: Key to Na+/K+ Homeostasis

    HKT is a major transporter of Na+ ion inside the plant. It regulates the uptake, distribution and maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis in the plant. HKT is family of protein in which some are specific to Na+ mainly, while some are specific to both Na+ and K+. The expression of concerned HKT in different parts at different stage may alleviate the Na+ ion toxicity in plants. Therefore Na+ toxicity which is due to salinity stress can be regulated by distribution of their transporters i.e. HKT.

    By: SARITA KUMARI
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