Most Recent Molecular Breeding Articles.

  • miRNA Assisted Crop Improvement For Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Studies have shown that environmental abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, high and low temperature, and osmotic stress) induce significant differential expression of miRNAs in a variety of plant species (Zhang et al., 2015). Currently, a number of miRNAs have been reported to be induced by drought and salinity stresses in several different plant species. These miRNAs include miR156, miR159, miR165, miR167, miR168, miR169, miR319, miR393, miR395, miR396, miR398, miR399, and miR402. Almost all of these stress-induced miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved, although evidence supports that miRNAs respond to environmental stresses in a miRNA-, stress-, and genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, this information suggests that miRNAs play a versatile role in plant response to environmental abiotic stresses.

    By: Ashish Kumar
  • Role of Double Haploids in Crop Improvement

    Using the DH system can significantly shorten the time needed to reach the level of homozygosity needed for testing yield and other characters. This means that finally farmers can get better cultivars sooner. Cultivars obtained using the DH system are also expected to have better uniformity and stability, making easier to comply with the requirements for DUS (distinctness, uniformity, stability), imposed by any seed registration authority like PPV&FRA in India. Due to the shortened breeding cycle from 6-7 generations down to 1-3, there is a substantial cost savings and increased capacity to fast track breeding objectives. The haploid process allows for the elimination of unfavorable genes and enrichment of favorable genes in the breeding material.

    By: Ashish Kumar
  • SNP: Marker for 21st Century

    Genetic improvement of crop species is required to enhance their economic traits such as yield, tolerances to environment and microbial stresses, etc. and thus fulfill the ultimate goal of plant breeding. The most important step in crop breeding program is the selection of plants/individuals with desirable characters. The use of DNA based markers has revolutionized the rapid and precision of plant genetic investigation which in turn facilitated the implementation of molecular breeding of crops. Molecular markers based on single nucleotide change(SNPs) have rapidly and widely used in molecular genetics during the recent years due to their abundance in the genomes and their amenability for high-throughput detection technique. Computer biology approches dominate SNP discovery methods due to the ever increasing sequence information in public databases; however, complex genomes pose special challenges in the identification of informative SNPs warranting alternative strategies in those crops.

  • Plant tissue culture and its role in modern agriculture

    Tissue culture has great significance in biological studies due to its various ranges of applications. The different type of processes that are involved in tissue culture may be complex and require a lot of care to avoid contamination. Till date, plant tissue culture industries are not regarded as an agriculture industry may be because of the fact that the plants are grown in the artificial media and not in the soil. To meet to the high plant demand, commercial plant tissue culture laboratories should be highly encouraged

    By: khushboo kumari

    Accelerated breeding is a novel breeding technique that makes use of genetic modification to speed up breeding by induction of early flowering. In the final breeding steps the genes used for the genetic modification are crossed out, resulting in end-products that are completely free of genetic modification.

    By: Nitesh S D
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