Most Recent Agriculture Articles.

  • Strigolactones: A Novel Phytohormone

    Strigolactones are newly identified plant hormones, shown to participate in the regulation of lateral shoot branching and root development. However, little is known about their effects on biological processes, genes and proteins. GR24 treatment interferes with the root's response to IAA treatment and that strigolactones are potentially positive regulators of light harvesting in plants. Chemical genetic screening using Arabidopsis thaliana as a platform identified a collection of related small molecules, cotylimides, which perturb strigolactone accumulation. Suppressor screens against select cotylimides identified light-signaling genes as positive regulators of strigolactone levels. Molecular analysis Showed strigolactones regulate the nuclear localization of the COP1 ubiquity ligase, which in part determines the levels of light regulators such as HY5. This information uncovers new functions for strigolactones.

    By: sujeet kumar
  • Codon Optimization: Necessity of Modern Biotechnology

    The expression of functional proteins in heterologous system has become a current demand of modern biotechnology. Proteins expression outside their original host is often difficult. They may contain codons that are rarely used in the desired host, come from organisms that use non-canonical code, or contain expression-limiting regulatory elements within the coding sequence. Codon optimization is a technique to maximize the protein expression in living organismby increasing the translational efficiency of gene of interest by transforming DNAsequence of nucleotides of one species into DNA sequence of nucleotides of anotherspecies. And nowadays codon optimization has become major tool for scientists to enhance the expression level with in the host.In thisprocess amino acid will be same, but codon of low frequency of an amino acid willreplace with codon of high frequency, according to desired species frequencydistribution table.So codon optimization involves replacing wild type DNA sequences with more highlyexpressed species sequences (without changing the antigen).

    By: sujeet kumar
  • THE NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX

    Nuclear pores are large complexes that cross the nuclear envelop, which is the double membrane system surrounding the eukaryotic nucleus. Macromolecules must move between the nucleus and cytoplasm often in eukaryotic cells because replication and transcription happens in the nucleus and translation happens in the cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope separates the nucleoplasm (that has the genetic material) from the cytoplasm; the RNA molecules that are made in the nucleus must be translated to proteins in the cytoplasm. These macromolecules move through the nuclear envelope by way nuclear pore complexes (NPC). There are about on average 2000 nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear envelope of a vertebrate cell, but it varies depending on cell type and the stage in the life cycle.

    By: sujeet kumar
  • Fluid Bed Dried Formulation of Biofertilizers

    Agriculture practices are now driving towards sustainability. Excessive agrochemical use is now getting criticism from all corners. The great deal here is to provide suitable agents to be used as alternatives in order to replace some part of agrochemicals. One such area of research is improving performance of microbial bioinoculants as huge potential of microbes in plant growth is proven fact. Attempts of making Fluid Bed Dried (FBD) microbial inoculant is a promising approach for reducing contaminant level and enhancing shelf life. The inoculant is prepared in FBD by fluidized drying of inoculant- carrier mixture. This sufficiently reduces the moisture content of inocula for safe storage and reduces contaminants. Use of fluid bed dried microbial consortia also had shown improvement in plant growth parameters. Advancement and popularization of FBD inoculants may help in improving quality of microbial inoculants.

    By: Pramod Kumar Sahu
  • Genesis and Transformation of Clay Minerals in Shrink-Swell Soils of India

    • Vertisols in India occur in the lower piedmont plains or valleys and developed mainly in the alluvium of weathering Deccan basalt. • The clay illuviation is more important pedogenic process in a <100 year clayey shrink-swell soils than pedoturbation. • Vertic Alfisols of sub-humid and semi-arid climates appear to be the precursor of the genesis of Vertisols. • Vertisols in the presence of Ca-zeolites (Typic Haplusterts) of HT remain as Vertisols as long as the zeolites continue to provide bases, which prevents the total transformation of smectites to kaolin • The smectite in Vertisols must have formed in an earlier more humid climate and its crystallinity being preserved in the non-leaching environments of the sub-humid to dry climates.

    By: Priya Pandurang Gurav
  • Eco-friendly PGPRs: Characterization and Perspectives in agriculture

    The PGPRs also known as plant growth promoting microorganism, plays significant role in the intensively managed agricultural systems.The rising demand for crop production with significant reduction in synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a challenge. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environment friendly way of increasing crop productivity by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include curbing hormonal and nutritional harmony, inducing systemic resistance against phytopathogens, and solubilising nutrients for easy uptake by crops. The plant growth promoting bacteria having the ability of the isolate to produce IAA, as IAA directly influences root growth, development and enhancing nutrient uptake. The phosphorous influences overall plant growth and root development. The PGPR utilization as bio fertilizers will determine a sustainable promotion of host plants growth. PGPR act as model systems which provide a pathway to constitute novel genetic library and bioactive chemicals which diversely uses in agriculture and environmental sustainability

    By: Abhijeet shankar kashyap
  • MANAGEMENT OF MEALYBUG ON COTTON

    The cotton mealybug was found to infest cotton plants from all cotton growing areas of the country. Infestation of mealyugs leads to reduced plant vigour, reduced boll development, fewer, smaller, and deformed bolls. Mealybugs are best treated if detected early, when populations are low. Follow appropriate cultural practices and release natural enemies. Spray less hazardous insecticides and spray the chemicals first on plants around infested plants and then as spot application at the infested plants

    By: Gugulotu Laxman
  • DNA Barcoding: An efficient tool for identification of agriculturally important insects

    DNA barcoding is an emerging as a promising taxonomic tool for swift and precise identification of species that uses a short genetic marker in an insect DNA to separate/identify a target species from other closely related species including unknown species. It comprises, sequencing of short fragment of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from a taxonomically unknown species and comparing that with barcodes from the reference library of known species origin to establish a species level identification. Conventional method of insect identification mostly based on morphological characterization of adult stage and/or male genitalia characteristics. On the other hand DNA barcoding can give identification of insect species at any developing stage whether egg, larvae, pupa or adult and can provide species identification with higher accuracy. As insects are omnipresent creatures harboring every possible niche on the earth with great degree of speciation, DNA barcoding is now been considered as one of the reliable and efficient alternative tool for insect biodiversity identification across the globe.

    By: Shivaji Thube
  • BIOAUGMENTATION

    Biological additives (the process of adding selected strains/mixed culture in a reactor for wastewater treatment, in order to increase the catabolism of certain compounds, such refractory organic or total COD/ BOD/NH4-N) is a promising method for solving practical problems in the installation of industrial wastewater plant treatment or waste water treatment, as well as to improve the efficiency of removal. The potential of these options can now be enhanced in order to take advantage of significant progress in the field of microbial ecology, molecular biology, immobilization techniques and advanced bioreactor design. The goal was to increase includes goals, such as: 1) increase the density of desirable bacteria, 2) achieves certain operating target, such as the breakdown of multifaceted organic compounds, 3) increases the overall organic removal and 4) recovering from a twisted in a biological system for processing. Many operators of industrial waste water in particular are faced with difficult business conditions and the stringent discharge permits that defy the ability of their wastewater treatment. Under these conditions bio augmentation can be money-spinning, interim or medium-term solution to maintain compliance of effluent to change the system and/or plant upgrades can be carried out

    By: Thejavath laxman
  • DROUGHT ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES

    Agriculture remains by far the most vulnerable and sensitive sector that is seriously affected by the impacts of climate variability and climate change, which is usually manifested through rainfall variability and drought. Rainfall is one of the climatic variables that largely determine the occurrence of drought and also influences the growth and development of vegetation’s, which is reflected by NDVI

    By: Thejavath laxman
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