The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a RNA guided programmable endonuclease based technology composed of 2 components, the Cas9 nuclease and an engineered guide RNA targeting any DNA sequence of the form N20- NGG used for novel genome editing applications in many organisms including plants. The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has emerged as a promising tools for plant genome engineering. It has become a simple, most users friendly and efficient, precise genome editing tool for development of genetically edited crops. It has become most promising and extremely versatile tool for crop improvement for providing sustainable productive agriculture for better feeding of rapidly growing population in a changing climate.
Improving crops through GMO is associated with many safety concern, environmental risks and health issues, due to the presence of foreign DNA. These limitations have prompted the development of alternative technologies. Recently, cisgenesis and intragenesis have been developed as new tools aimed to modify crops. While cisgenesis involves genetic modification using a complete copy of natural genes with their regulatory elements that belong exclusively to sexually compatible plants, intragenesis refers to the transference of new combinations of genes and regulatory sequences belonging to that particular species.