With the limitation of non-renewable resources used in agriculture, we have to think for a sustainable growth rather than just to achieve food security without considering soil and environmental health. Today, about 70% of our calorie need is fulfilled by annual grain legumes which are in long term deteriorate the soil as well as environmental health and require more and more inputs to sustain their yield. In contrast, perennial crops i.e. intermediate wheat grass (Kernza) may be a new horizon crop providing grains with quality similar to wheat, suitable to grow in marginal lands with limited resource use, improve soil health with its thick and long roots, reduce soil erosion and nitrate leaching and increase carbon sequestration. Though there are some limitations like suitable cultivation practice has not yet standardised and small grains with low yield than the established crops may not initially attract farmers for its cultivation but with proper breeding and agronomic management, in future it may be definitely be a solution for sustainability and food security of global agriculture scenario.
Irrigation scheduling as its name indicates, is the application of right quantity of irrigation water at right stage, right time and right method to reduce losses and increase productivity of crop and water. There are different types of irrigation scheduling i.e. critical crop growth stage based, leaf water potential based, based on sensitive crop, based on depletion of available soil moisture (DASM), climatological approach (IW/CPE ratio), tensiometric method etc. can be helpful for achieving the target. Among these methods farmers generally use critical crop growth stages for irrigation scheduling but for more precise and timely application of irrigation water, tensiometric method of scheduling can be recommended to progressive farmers.