Over the past decades, plant cryopreservation technologies have been evolving rapidly, opening the door to the possibility of long-term storage of valuable germplasm accessions of many field crops and forest species. From the original slow-cooling approach, research has shifted to easier and more efficient techniques which allow a complete vitrification of extra- and intra-cellular liquids by direct immersion of explants in liquid nitrogen.
The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function of a plant. Plant germplasm of vegetatively propagated species may be maintained in germplasm banks or tissue culture systems. Breeding vegetatively or clonally propagated species often includes the use of tissue culture systems.
Improved plant cultivars are important in order to meet out the challenges of a growing human population and limited planet resources. Success of plant breeding relies on meiotic crossovers to combine favorable alleles into novel varieties. However, meiotic crossovers are relatively rare event, typically one to three per chromosome, which limiting the efficiency and pace of the breeding process and related activities such as genetic mapping etc. Several genes that limit meiotic recombination were identified in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutation of these genes in Arabidopsis induces a large increase in crossover frequency. However, it remained to be demonstrated whether crossovers could also be increased in crop species hybrids. Mutation in these anticrossover genes FANCM, RECQ4 and FIGL1 leads to rapidly increase in recombination frequency which can be utilize to increase the efficiency of plant breeding methods.