Argemone Mexicana is known with different names in different languages and regions but its uses for medicinal purpose are all where same. Every part of the plant from root to the leaves has specific medicinal quality. Argemone Mexicana has countless biological activities such as antibacterial, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, fungitoxic, antioxidant, antimalarial etc. The oil produced from the argemone seed can be used as biofuel. Argemone oil contains two major toxic alkaloids which can cause epidemic dropsy or sometimes loss of human lives. The higher per cent of oil content and the resemblance of argemone seed to that of mustard seed make it an adulterant in mustard oil. The government is taking necessary steps to curb it and few of the countries banned argemone production. It is very difficult to visually identify the mustard oil adulterated with argemone oil but on the basis of chemical tests the presence of argemone can be easily identified. Since Argemone Mexicana has both toxic compounds as well important medicinal uses so the choice of using it has always been a matter of debate.